DRAFT

PENNSYLVANIA’S STATEWIDE TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

FFY 2023-2026 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
AUGUST 17, 2022


OVERVIEW

In compliance with all applicable State and Federal requirements, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and its Planning Partners at the county and regional levels, developed the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2023-2026 Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), also referred to as the 2023 STIP.

The 2023 STIP includes $23.5 billion ($16.1 billion for Highway/Bridge and $7.4 billion for Transit) in federal, state, local and private resources over the four-year period for capital improvements. The STIP consists of a list of prioritized projects/project phases identified for funding by federal fiscal year. The 2023 STIP includes Transportation Improvement Programs (TIPs) as adopted by each Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) and Rural Planning Organization (RPO) as well as the TIP for Wayne County and the centrally managed Interstate Management (IM) and the Statewide Items (STWD) TIPs. The 2023 STIP submission includes air quality conformity determinations, public comment information and other supporting documentation.

In addition to the STIP funding for capital improvements, PennDOT’s budget provides dedicated and sustainable revenues for the operation and maintenance of our Transportation System. Appendix 1 shows a Transportation Program Funding Summary from the Governor’s Executive Budget 2022-2023 as well as the sources and uses of funds to support PennDOT’s programs.

Pennsylvania continues to follow a Performance Based Planning and Programming (PBPP) process, with a focus on collaboration between PennDOT, FHWA, FTA, and MPO/RPOs at the county and regional levels. The 2023 STIP was developed as part of a cooperative, continuing, and comprehensive (3C) planning process which guides the development of many PBPP documents. This includes the Financial Guidance and General and Procedural documents (Appendix 2, Appendix 3) for the 2023 Program update PennDOT, FHWA and all MPO/RPOs concurred with the guidance prior to final issuance.

Key aspects in the development of the 2023 STIP were:

  • Final Financial Guidance and General and Procedural Guidance for the 2023 Program development were issued on June 29, 2021 after PennDOT and the MPO/RPOs reached consensus.
  • Following the enactment of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL) on November 15, 2021, the Financial Guidance Work Group reconvened on November 18, 2021 and December 1, 2021. Updated 2023 Financial Guidance was issued on March 8, 2022.
  • The State Transportation Commission (STC), PennDOT, and MPOs/RPOs coordinated an early public involvement process that featured an open comment period held from March 1 to April 14, 2021. This open comment period featured an online survey and Online Public Forum hosted by Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and STC Chair, Yassmin Gramian on March 23, 2021.
  • MPOs/RPOs, with input from PennDOT, the STC and transit providers produced draft TIPs for their regions and submitted them to PennDOT by December 31, 2021, for review and response.
  • Project funding information, Public Narratives, and Air Quality information for the 2023 STIP have been entered into PennDOT’s Multimodal Project Management System (MPMS).
  • To align with Federal requirements and existing needs the information depicted in the MPO/RPOs TIPs continue to reflect the change to move additional funding to the Interstate system (beginning with $150 million in 2021 and increasing by $50 million per year through 2028) to get an annual investment of $1 Billion by 2028. The move was agreed upon during the development of the 2021 Financial Guidance.
  • The Secretary’s “Spike” funding recommendations were provided toward the front end of the program development process. This assisted the regions in their overall planning efforts for the 2023 Program update.
  • Air quality analyses were undertaken in ozone and PM2.5 non-attainment and maintenance areas and draft conformity determinations were completed. Conformity determinations were also conducted for the 1997 ozone orphan areas.
  • Federal and state agencies utilized an interagency consultation process to review and comment on the draft conformity determinations.
  • Subsequently, the MPOs/RPOs held public comment periods, considered comments, and adopted their respective TIP.
  • A separate STIP 15-day public comment period was held. PennDOT considered comments and developed responses.
  • MPO/RPO TIPs are incorporated directly into the STIP, without modification.
  • With the adoption of the Commonwealth’s TYP on August 17, 2022 the STC thereby endorsed the 2023 STIP (First Four Years of the TYP).
  • The STIP is a financially responsible and fiscally constrained program. It reflects an estimate of federal, state, local, and private funds expected to be available over the next four years.
  • The 2023 STIP is consistent with PennDOT’s 2045 statewide long-range transportation plan (LRTP), statewide freight plan and MPO/RPO regional LRTPs.
  • The Highway and Bridge portion of the STIP continues the Commonwealth’s asset management philosophy, while advancing a PBPP approach to address federal Transportation Performance Management (TPM) requirements by providing funding to advance safety improvements and promoting improvement in the condition and performance of Pennsylvania’s highway system. The capacity expansion and new facility projects are consistent with the statewide LRTP and MPO/RPO regional LRTPs.
  • The Public Transit portion of the STIP is based on the projects and line items included on the MPO/RPO TIPs as developed in cooperation with transit agencies.
  • The STIP includes all statewide and regionally significant projects regardless of funding source.

The following sections of this document summarize the funding in both the highway/bridge and transit portions of the STIP. Additional information is provided on air quality conformity, public participation and other specifics related to STIP development and management. MPO/RPO submissions include regional TIP listings, air quality conformity reports, public comment documentation, TIP revision procedures, and various resolutions where required.

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE

Financial Guidance (Appendix 2) and General and Procedural Guidance (Appendix 3) documents provide the basis for the development of the 2023 Program. PennDOT, FHWA and the MPOs/RPOs jointly developed the guidance documents, first through two respective workgroups, and later through agreement by all parties. This guidance was reviewed with all MPOs/RPOs during the spring Planning Partners meeting on June 29, 2021, and unanimous concurrence was achieved. Final Financial Guidance and General and Procedural Guidance were issued on July 15, 2021.

Financial Guidance

Financial Guidance provides funding levels available for the development of the STIP for all anticipated federal and state funding over the FFY 2023-2026 period. For highways and bridges, federal funding assumptions are based upon the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL) which was enacted on November 15, 2021. Financial Guidance was re-issued on March 8, 2022.

State revenues are based on the budget estimates for highway and bridge capital appropriations. Allocations are provided to each MPO/RPO for highway and bridge funds based on jointly developed formulas. A portion of highway funding is reserved for distribution by the Secretary of Transportation (referred to as Spike funding) to offset the impact of high-cost projects, special initiatives, or program spikes, which are beyond a region’s allocation. The Spike funded projects for the 2023 Program (Appendix 4) continued previous “Spike” funded project commitments, aligned with the Department’s investment initiatives. The Financial Guidance Work Group recommended that the IM Program, the National Highway Freight Program (NHFP/NFP) and Railway-Highway Crossings Program (Section 130/RRX) continue to be centrally managed. Funds associated with the newly established Carbon Reduction, Electric Vehicles and PROTECT formula programs are assigned to the statewide program due to timing with the 2023 Program Update, implementing guidance and apportionments. Necessary updates to the 2023 Program will take place after STIP adoption in October 2022.

For transit, the Financial Guidance includes a combination of federal and state resources. Federal funding is based on Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act levels due to timing with the 2023 Program Update and the availability of IIJA/BIL funding data and information. Any necessary updates to the 2023 Program due to IIJA/BIL will take place after adoption in October 2022. State funding is based on formulas established in Act 26 of 1991, Act 3 of 1997, Act 44 of 2007 and Act 89 of 2013. As part of an agreement between the Commonwealth and the transit agencies, a total of $25 million per year in federal highway funding is reserved to be flexed to transit agencies. Each transit operator is responsible for determining specific amounts for capital improvements and operating assistance.

General and Procedural Guidance

The General and Procedural Guidance provides direction for the 2023 Program development process within the context of multiple interrelated, intergovernmental planning functions. It contains information related to the general planning process, along with policies, requirements and guidance directly related to Program development and administration. It includes the schedule, procedures, and documentation necessary to complete the Program update.

Noteworthy policy and requirements for the 2023 Program update included the Federal TPM requirements and the PennDOT Connects/Local Government Collaboration policy.

TPM is a strategic approach that uses data to make investment and policy decisions to achieve national performance goals. 23 CFR 490 outlines the national performance goal areas for the Federal-aid program. In addition, PennDOT integrated its Transportation Asset Management Plan (TAMP) into the General and Procedural Guidance. The TAMP commits PennDOT to two overarching requirements:

  • Meeting FHWA minimum condition thresholds for National Highway System (NHS) pavements and bridges.
  • Transitioning from “worst-first” programming to lowest life-cycle cost (LLCC) asset management.

Achieving both requirements is challenging, primarily because funding is inadequate to cover the size and age of Pennsylvania’s NHS roads and bridges. Additionally, meeting condition targets and managing to LLCC can be conflicting approaches when funding is insufficient to invest in reducing the percentage of poor pavements and bridges while also investing in preventative maintenance on structures in good and fair condition.

The PennDOT Connects initiative provides a collaborative approach to project planning and development by requiring collaboration with local and regional stakeholders before project scopes are developed. The Department will meet with local governments, MPOs and RPOs to discuss issues such as safety, bicycle/pedestrian accommodations, transit access, stormwater management, utilities, freight-generating land uses and other documented issues to consider for inclusion in projects. This collaboration will have the benefit of encouraging MPOs and RPOs to track major changes to county and municipal comprehensive plans and zoning ordinances, further strengthening the linkage between land use, transportation, and economic development decision making and their effect on the development of current and future Transportation Programs. Program Management and monitoring systems, corridor studies, project development screening forms, needs and feasibility studies, and environmental studies are examples of documentation that may be used in the development of TIPs and LRTPs. The PennDOT Connects/Local Government coordination requirement applies to all projects where the Preliminary Engineering phase began after July 1, 2016.

STATE TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

Highway and Bridge Summary

Funding contained in the highway and bridge portion of the STIP includes all federal and state capital funds anticipated over the next four years, FFY 2023–2026. This funding has been assigned to projects consistent with an integrated and cooperative process between PennDOT and the MPO/RPOs. Local and other sources of revenue are included as identified for individual projects.

PennDOT and MPOs/RPOs worked together to set performance measure targets that guide state and regional investment decisions. Aligning goals and performance objectives across national (FHWA), state (PennDOT) and regions (MPOs/RPOs) provide a common framework for decision-making that aligns with TPM requirements.

The 2023 STIP includes funding for capital improvements, restoration of the existing system, safety improvements, congestion reduction, operational improvements, and preservation of bridges. While operations and maintenance are addressed, the STIP does not account for the state maintenance appropriation, except where maintenance funds are used to match federal funds, or other unique circumstances. Appendix 5 provides a summary and a chart by MPO/RPO showing available funding outside of the TIP that supports transportation operation and maintenance needs in the commonwealth.

The following table shows a summary of funding contained in the highway and bridge portion of the STIP from all sources by federal fiscal year.

STIP – Highway and Bridge Funding Summary ($M)

Source

2021

2022

2023

2024

Total

Federal

$2,694

$2,752

$2,785

$2,813

$11,044

State

$1,013

$1,097

$1,224

$1,457

$4,791

Other

$147

$82

$49

$49

$327

Totals

$3,854

$3,931

$4,058

$4,319

$16,162


Assumptions

The following summarizes the funding assumptions for the highway and bridge portion of the STIP:

  • Available funds are consistent with Financial Guidance with certain exceptions noted below.
  • The 2023 STIP assumes new funding levels established in IIJA/BIL which was enacted on November 15, 2021.
  • State funds are based on reasonable budget estimates in the years covered by the STIP.
  • Most federal funding categories assume a four-year apportionment. Although the Commonwealth has balances of various federal funding categories, these balances were not considered except to adjust for certain types of projects. Overall fiscal constraint is maintained.
  • Financial Guidance doesn’t assume any reserve balance of State highway or bridge funds. However, historically there are balances in both categories. The 2023 STIP includes approximately $100 million in reserve highway funds and $100 million in reserve bridge funds.
  • Certain federal funds are associated with specific projects and/or programs and are available as additional financial resources above and beyond the dollar amounts shown in Financial Guidance. This includes categories such as earmarked Special Federal Funds (SXF) and various federal discretionary program funds.

Financial Constraint

The 2023 STIP available funds versus programmed funds table shown below provides additional detail of all highway and bridge funding.

The table is divided by core funding categories and those categories which bring additional resources to the STIP. Funding category definitions are provided in Appendix 6 and total federal, state, and other funding amounts are provided by fund category in Appendix 7.

The table below demonstrates the financial capacity of the STIP. The amount of funding identified in Financial Guidance and the programmed amount do not always match exactly in some of the categories. The section “Additional Funding in the STIP” accounts for some of the differences along with PennDOT managing fiscal constraint based on available balances in state and federal categories, coupled with the transferability provisions of the federal program. Appendix 8 shows Pennsylvania’s Highway Federal funds balances as of July 29, 2022. The STIP contains slightly more federal funds than potential apportionments in some years. This is managed throughout the implementation of the STIP in the following ways:

  • The annual obligation limitation will ultimately control the level of federal dollars obligated in any year.
  • PennDOT develops all transportation projects based on federal procedures and requirements to allow greater flexibility in programming both state and federal funds. This approach allows PennDOT to react to variations in annual obligation authority because project development based on state standards alone does not allow a switch to federal funding.

Programmed projects reflect Year of Expenditure (YOE) requirements.

FFY 2023-2026 Statewide Transportation Improvement Program
Highway and Bridge Funding Summary Chart
Available Funds vs. Programmed Funds ($000)


2023
2024
2025
2026
Totals
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Highway Funds
National Highway System
1,172.8
1,172.8
1,196.2
1,196.2
1,220.1
1,220.1
1,244.5
1,244.5
4,833.6
4,833.6
Surface Transportation Program
246.0
246.0
252.9
252.9
259.9
259.9
267.0
267.0
1,025.8
1,025.8
STP-Urban
178.8
178.8
182.3
182.3
186.0
186.0
189.7
189.7
736.8
736.8
State Highway
479.0
479.0
508.0
508.0
516.0
516.0
555.0
555.0
2,058.0
2,058.0
Highway Sub-Total
2,076.6
2,076.6
2,139.4
2,139.4
2,182.0
2,182.0
2,256.2
2,256.2
8,654.2
8,654.2
Bridge Funds
Special Bridge Formula
278.1
278.1
278.1
278.1
278.1
278.1
278.1
278.1
1,112.4
1,112.4
Bridge Off-System
147.5
147.5
147.5
147.5
147.5
147.5
147.5
147.5
590.0
590.0
State Bridge
282.0
282.0
277.0
277.0
277.0
277.0
276.0
276.0
1,112.0
1,112.0
Bridge Sub-Total
707.6
707.6
702.6
702.6
702.6
702.6
701.6
701.6
2,814.4
2,814.4
Other Funds
Cong. Mitigation/Air Quality
113.8
113.8
116.1
116.1
118.4
118.4
120.8
120.8
469.1
469.1
National Highway Freight Program
56.9
56.9
58.0
58.0
59.2
59.2
60.4
60.4
234.5
234.5
Rail/Hwy Crossings
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
28.8
28.8
Safety
125.9
125.9
128.6
128.6
131.3
131.3
134.1
134.1
519.9
519.9
Transportation Alternatives
47.4
47.4
48.4
48.4
49.3
49.3
50.3
50.3
195.4
195.4
Carbon Reduction
64.6
64.6
65.7
65.7
66.7
66.7
67.8
67.8
264.8
264.8
PROTECT
73.5
73.5
74.7
74.7
75.9
75.9
77.1
77.1
301.2
301.2
Other Sub-Total
489.3
489.3
498.7
498.7
508.0
508.0
517.7
517.7
2,013.7
2,013.7
Total
3,273.5
3,273.5
3,340.7
3,340.7
3,392.6
3,392.6
3,475.5
3,475.5
13,482.3
13,482.3
Additional Funding Included in STIP
APD/APL
63.4
47.3
45.8
40.8
197.3
SPR/PL
70.5
73.3
76.2
79.2
299.2
Carryover State Highway
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
100.0
Carryover State Bridge
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
100.0
Multimodal
80.6
82.0
82.0
83.6
328.2
Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
40.7
40.7
40.7
40.7
162.8
Other (A-582, Local, SXF, FSRTS,etc.)
266.4
288.5
361.1
539.6
1,455.6
Subtotal Additional Funding
571.6
581.8
655.8
833.9
2,643.1
Total
3,273.5
3,845.1
3,340.7
3,922.5
3,392.6
4,048.4
3,475.5
4,309.4
13,482.3
16,125.4


Transit Summary

Funding for transit improvements in Pennsylvania is a combination of federal, state and local monies. Federal funding of FTA programs is authorized by the IIJA/BIL which amended Chapter 53 of Title 49 of the U.S. Code. Federal funding includes various categories of funds, including those related to urban formula, rural, fixed guideway, new starts, elderly and persons with disabilities, and bus related facilities. State funding for transit programs is provided for in Act 44 of 2007 as amended by Act 89 of 2013.

Act 44 of 2007 established the Public Transportation Trust Fund (PTTF) to fund public transportation programs and projects. Public transportation funds from various sources—Turnpike, Sales and Use Tax, Public Transportation Assistance Fund (PTAF), Capital Bond Funds, Lottery, transfers from the Motor License Fund that are not restricted to highway purposes and various fines—are deposited into the PTTF. Act 44, as amended, authorizes six major public transportation programs:

  • Operating Program (Section 1513)
  • Asset Improvement Program for Capital projects (Section 1514)
  • Capital Improvement Program (Section 1517)
  • Alternative Energy Program (Section 1517.1)
  • New Initiatives Program (Section 1515)
  • Programs of Statewide Significance (Section 1516)

Congressional projects and Capital Investment Grant projects (such as New Start projects) are incorporated in the transit portion of the STIP. In addition, state capital budget funding is released annually for capital improvements.

The regional TIPs include Coordinated Public Transit-Human Services Transportation Plans as required by the Final Rule issued on February 14, 2007.

The following table provides a summary of funds included in the transit portion of the STIP.

STIP – Transit Funding Summary ($M)

Source

2023

2024

2025

2026

Total

Federal

$591

$561

$566

$542

$2,260

State

$1,061

$932

$933

$933

$3,859

Other

$449

$232

$288

$287

$1,256

Totals

$2,101

$1,725

$1,787

$1,762

$7,375

Assumptions

The following summarizes the funding assumptions for the transit portion of the STIP:

  • The IIJA/BIL of 2021 substantially increased public transportation funding over FAST Act levels. The increases varied by transit agency and program, but overall transit funding increased approximately 36% over the final year of the FAST Act.
  • The 2023 STIP assumes funding growth between 2% and 3% annually, as identified in the IIJA/BIL.
  • State funds are based on the latest budget estimates in the years covered by the STIP and include increased revenues generated by the passage of Act 89 of 2013.
  • A total of $25 million in federal highway funding per year will be flexed to transit.

Financial Constraint

The 2023 STIP Available Funds versus Programmed Funds table shown below provides additional detail of all transit funding.

The table is also divided by core funding categories and those categories which bring additional resources to the STIP. Funding category definitions are provided in Appendix 6.

Appendix 9 reflects all federal, state, and other transit funding. Programmed projects reflect year of expenditure requirements.

Specific projects for included line items are determined early in the calendar year (CY). Once funding is committed through a grant, the appropriate federal or state MPMS funding codes are applied to the project (which may have been previously programmed with MPMS funds codes OTH-F or OTH-S) and funding is reduced in the corresponding federal funding line item. Please note that line items or actual projects are programmed for some agencies. This reflects an anticipation of funds or approved projects carried over from a previous STIP.



FFY 2023-2026 Statewide Transportation Improvement Program
Transit Funding Summary Chart
Available Funds vs. Programmed Funds ($ Millions)


Fund Type
2023
2024
2025
2026
Total
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Financial Guidance
Programmed
Financial Guidance Programmed Financial Guidance Programmed Financial Guidance
Programmed
Federal Transit
COVID
0.59
0.59
0.19
0.19
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
1.25
1.25
OTH-F
30.03
30.03
10.90
10.90
12.08
12.08
18.87
18.87
71.89
71.89
STP
0.28
0.28
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.28
SXF
4.48
4.48
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.48
4.48
5307
233.31
233.31
234.55
234.55
235.08
235.08
212.70
212.70
914.58
914.58
5309
0.40
0.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.40
0.40
5310
16.13
16.13
15.58
15.58
16.01
16.01
15.70
15.70
63.42
63.42
5311
39.22
39.22
46.30
46.30
47.04
47.04
44.01
44.01
176.57
176.57
5329
1.59
1.59
1.83
1.83
1.98
1.98
2.07
2.07
7.47
7.47
5337
233.98
233.98
237.49
237.49
240.54
240.54
235.04
235.04
947.04
947.04
5339
30.05
30.05
13.25
13.25
12.92
12.92
13.14
13.14
69.36
69.36
Total Federal
590.07

590.07

560.08

560.08
565.89
565.89
541.77
541.77
2,256.75
2,256.75
State Transit
OTH-S
154.16
154.16
73.58
73.58
65.13
65.13
72.44
72.44
365.31
365.31
PTAF
12.27
12.27
12.28
12.28
12.27
12.27
12.27
12.27
49.10
49.10
160
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.02
0.02
0.16
0.16
164
17.98
17.98
17.98
17.98
17.98
17.98
17.98
17.98
71.92
71.92
338
349.40
349.40
348.63
348.63
349.57
349.57
349.90
349.90
1,396.51
1,396.51
339
508.29
508.29
463.50
463.50
469.81
469.81
468.49
468.49
1,910.07
1,910.07
340
12.16
12.16
5.95
5.95
8.24
8.24
5.97
5.97
32.33
32.33
341
6.44
6.44
10.42
10.42
9.79
9.79
5.42
5.42
31.75
31.75
Total State
1,060.76
1,060.76
932.37
932.37
932.85
932.85
932.50
932.50
3,857.14
3,857.14
Other
LOC
436.90
227.21
283.93
283.66
1,231.70
OTH
12.32
4.34
3.76
3.66
24.09
Total Other
449.22
231.55
287.70
287.32
1,255.79
Grand Total
2,098.01
2,098.01
1,723.65
1,723.65
1,786.43
1,786.43
1,761.59
1,761.59
7,369.68
7,369.68


Statewide Programs

The STIP includes several Highway and Bridge Statewide Programs that are centrally managed by PennDOT’s Center for Program Development and Management (CPDM). The Statewide Programs are developed and managed through a Continuing, Comprehensive, and Cooperative process with input from PennDOT, MPOs, RPOs, FHWA, STC and any other involved interested parties.

Interstate Management Program

The Interstate Management (IM) Program is a separate TIP that is centrally developed and managed based on statewide needs. Pennsylvania has one of the largest Interstate Systems in the nation, with more than 2,743 miles of roadway and 2,216 bridges. Based on asset condition it is estimated that the annual need on the Interstates is $1.2 billion to meet basic maintenance and preservation needs. Currently, we spend between $700-$750 million per year on the Interstate System.

From a programming standpoint, the IM Program is constrained to an annual funding level provided as part of Financial Guidance. Working in collaboration with our MPOs/RPOs, PennDOT issued Financial Guidance that increases Interstate Investments by $50 million per year beginning in FFY 2021 up to $1 billion in FFY 2028.

With the passage of the IIJA/BIL, Pennsylvania’s highway and bridge share will increase by $4 billion over five years. The anticipated funding has been distributed statewide utilizing existing formulas and data established as part of Financial Guidance process. The Interstate Program will receive an approximately $70 million a year in bridge funds from the IIJA/BIL.

To manage the significant needs of the Statewide Interstate System more efficiently, PennDOT formed an Interstate Steering Committee (ISC). The ISC contains representation from PennDOT’s CPDM, the Bureau of Operations (BOO), the Bureau of Design and Delivery, and the PennDOT Engineering Districts (Districts). The ISC works with PennDOT, MPO/RPOs, FHWA and STC on the development and management of the IM Program. They assist with project prioritization and re-evaluate projects during Program updates. The ISC meets at least quarterly and assists with the management of the IM Program. Strategic planning is being conducted to update the roles and responsibilities of the ISC moving forward.

As part of the 2023 Program Update, the ISC requested each District provide a presentation on Interstate conditions, needs, challenges, and best practices occurring within their jurisdiction. The presentations occurred in August 2021. All presentations were available via web conference so MPO/RPOs, FHWA, other Districts and PennDOT Central Office staff could participate. The Interstate presentations provided a statewide perspective of current conditions and offered an opportunity to review currently planned and potential projects.

TPM measures and targets are outlined in the TPM section of this document. The TPM section will also outline how the IM program performance will be evaluated.

Project Prioritization

In coordination with the District presentations, the individual Districts provided prioritized lists of Interstate needs. These lists were compiled into a statewide prioritized Interstate needs list and reviewed by the Asset Management Division as well as Operations and Safety. District priorities were given great consideration and Central Office BOO staff provided needs for the next four years. The District-prioritized project needs were also reviewed against performance-based documents.

Initial programming consideration will be given to currently programmed Interstate projects without regular obligation/encumbrance or with Advance Construct (AC) obligation that need to be carried over from the current Program. Once the financial magnitude of the carry-over projects has been determined, an estimate can be made on the amount of program funds available for new IM projects, with consideration of current project schedules.

Previous priority lists were shared with Districts. To help evaluate and prioritize projects, the Bridge Asset Management System (BAMS) and Pavement Asset Management System (PAMS) were utilized to provide an optimized program based on Lowest Life-Cycle Cost (LLCC) principles. BAMS and PAMS were utilized to review how well committed projects aligned with LLCC principals as well as to help ensure no known needs were missed. Candidate projects were then compared and rated with a high-medium-low rating against the LLCC principals from the fiscally unconstrained runs. Project bridge and pavement data and guidance from Chapter 13 of Publication 242 were also used in project selection. Pennsylvania’s Transportation Asset Management Plan (TAMP) defines how LLCC is required and applied to planning and programming.

During development of the IM Program, consideration was given to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and various safety measures. Line items were programmed for ITS and All-weather Pavement Markings (AWPM), each of which will be ramped up over the first 4-years of the Interstate Program. The ITS line item will focus on addressing antiquated devices, new devices, and equipment gaps on the Interstate system. The AWPM line item will focus on the deployment of AWPMs as the center line for Interstates statewide.

New LLCC principal projects were selected for the balance of funds available for the 2023 IM Program. The District-prioritized lists were compared with the BAMS and PAMS runs. Projects with high District and high Asset Management Division Priorities were added to the Program as new projects.

Funds that were not allocated to projects were programmed in a set-aside line item to address programmatic contingencies, emergencies, and necessary project cost adjustments (increases and decreases). The line item will also be utilized to account for any obligation conversions that were anticipated to occur prior to end of the 2021 program and didn’t get converted. The line item is continually monitored and if not necessary for programmatic contingencies or emergencies, it is used to advance other prioritized needs.

The draft IM Program was shared with the ISC, Districts and MPO/RPOs on January 24, 2022. A final draft was shared with MPO/RPOs on February 8, 2022.

Secretary’s Discretionary Funding on the Interstate

As part of the Secretary’s discretionary (Spike) funded projects for the 2023 Program, several major Interstate Projects were included that otherwise would not have been able to advance and are vitally important to maintaining and improving our Interstate infrastructure. These projects are in support of Preventative Maintenance, Performance Based Planning and Programming, the Pennsylvania TAMP, and other state initiatives. Previously approved projects were reviewed and support state initiatives. The Spike-funded Interstate projects are included in the 2023 IM Program and are listed on the recommended Spike-funded projects for the 2023 Program.

National Highway Freight Program

The National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) was a new program authorized under the FAST Act to improve the efficient movement of freight on the National Highway Freight Network (NHFN) and support several important goals, including: (1) investing in infrastructure and operational improvements that strengthen economic competitiveness, reduce congestion, reduce the cost of freight transportation, improve reliability, and increase productivity; (2) improving the safety, security, efficiency, and resiliency of freight transportation in rural and urban areas; (3) improving the state of good repair of the NHFN; (4) using innovation and advanced technology to improve NHFN safety, efficiency, and reliability; (5) improving the efficiency and productivity of the NHFN; (6) improving State flexibility to support multi-State corridor planning and address highway freight connectivity; and (7) reducing the environmental impacts of freight movement on the NHFN. [23 U.S.C. 167 (a), (b)]. The Statutory citation for the NHFP is: FAST Act § 1116; 23 U.S.C. 167.

Per 2023 Financial Guidance all NHFP funds continue to be allocated to the Interstates and included on the IM Program with the MPMS fund code NFP. Projects were based on the following considerations:

  • Factors from the state’s Comprehensive Freight Movement Plan, including:
    • Freight bottlenecks;
    • Freight efficiency projects; and
    • Projects as identified by the state’s MPOs/RPOs.

The table below includes all NHFP-funded projects that are programmed in the 2023 STIP. More information is available in Appendix 10.

National Highway Freight Program Projects:

County

Project Title

Allegheny

I-376: Commercial Street Bridge

Dauphin

I-83 East Shore (Section 3)

Dauphin

I-83 East Shore (Section 3B)

Dauphin

I-83 Eisenhower Interchange D

Monroe

I-80/Exit 308 Realignment

Philadelphia

I-95: Betsy Ross Ramps A&B

Philadelphia

I-95: Race – Shackamaxon

Philadelphia

I-95 Betsy Ross Mainline Southbound

Philadelphia

I-95 Southbound: Ann Street – Wheatsheaf Lane

York

I-83, North York Widening

Central Office

National Highway Freight Program Reserve

Statewide Items Program

The STWD Items TIP contains approximately $602 million per year of transportation funding and is managed in PennDOT’s CPDM as a stand-alone TIP. It is comprised of a variety of statewide and multi-region projects, spending line items for routine transportation related work, and reserve line items that hold funds for a variety of programs.

Statewide and multi-region projects generally have a scope of work that includes locations throughout Pennsylvania or with locations that span across more than one planning region or District. Statewide projects may also include research or demonstration projects funded with a specified allocation of state or federal funding. Other examples include projects coordinated with the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission or other state agencies or commissions, projects coordinated with county and local government agencies, and projects coordinated with other business partners and associations. Statewide projects are of a statewide nature and would not typically be funded on an MPO/RPO Highway and Bridge TIP.

Routine spending line items generally have predictable costs each year and cover various aspects of project development, construction, and asset management. They include funding for planning, Pooled Fund Studies, inter-agency environmental review, accounts for take-up of right-of-way claims for project closeout, training for, and inspection of, state and local bridges and other structures, the Local Technical Assistance Program, Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Supportive Services, Traffic Monitoring Site installation and repair, costs related to the deployment of Transportation Systems Management and Operations projects, costs associated with the Rapid Bridge Replacement program, and statewide oversight and management reserves.

Reserve line items on the STWD Items TIP are used to maintain fiscal constraint of the overall STIP. They provide a STIP fiscal balancing facility to use when adding or removing projects, or when existing projects have cost savings or overruns, whether those projects are on the STWD Items TIP, or not. Reserve line items are held for state and federal highway and bridge funds, and a variety of other programs and fund types. For example, the Multimodal Reserve is used to fund state multimodal projects on regional TIPs. The Transit Flex Reserve holds highway funds that are flexed to transit and used each year to add regional transit projects as determined by the Pennsylvania Public Transit Association in cooperation with PennDOT’s Bureau of Public Transit. The Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) Recreation Trail Reserve provides funds for the Recreational Trails program continues to be a sub-allocation of the Transportation Alternatives Set-Aside. This program is operated by the DCNR in cooperation with PennDOT’s CPDM. Projects for education and administration of the program, as well as the Rec Trails projects themselves, are maintained on the STWD Items TIP.

Rail-Highway Crossing Safety Program (RRX)

Pennsylvania is allocated $7.2 million each year in federal Section 130 funding for the Rail-Highway Crossing Safety program. The RRX Program provides funding to eliminate hazards associated with at-grade highway and railroad crossings. Funding is used for installation of gates and flashing light warning systems, to upgrade existing warning systems, and for the removal of at-grade crossings. The RRX Reserve line Item is held on the STWD Items TIP, and projects are programmed on regional TIPs with the MPMS fund code RRX.

The RRX program is developed by PennDOT CPDM and Bureau of Project Delivery staff in coordination with District Grade Crossing Engineers/Administrators (DGCE/As) at the annual Statewide Grade Crossing meeting held in December 2021. Projects without regular obligation, or with AC obligation, are carried on the 2023 STIP. New projects are cash-flowed to later years. Regular obligation of carry-over projects prior to 2023 STIP adoption frees up funding to advance new projects.

RRX funding may only be used on open, public heavy (passenger and freight) rail crossings. Projects are prioritized first at locations in the top 25% highest hazard rating from the FRA Web Accident Prediction System (WBAPS). Other crossings along the same rail line can be included to form larger corridor projects. Local or railroad safety concerns, or MPO/RPO concerns communicated through their DGCE/A, which may not be identified in WBAPS, are also considered. These include issues such as increased train traffic, limited sight-distance, near-miss history, or antiquated warning devices. A list of RRX Program projects is included in Appendix 11.

Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) Set-aside

The purpose of the HSIP is to achieve a significant reduction in fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads. Implementation of the Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) through data driven safety analysis supports achieving these reductions. Pennsylvania receives $125.9 million in HSIP funding in 2023 and increases by approximately 2.1% per year until 2026. 2026 funding levels hold level through twelve-year program. $40 million of HSIP funds is designated for the HSIP Set-aside. Utilization of low-cost safety improvements system-wide also supports fatal and serious injury reductions. The HSIP Set-aside is used to implement the low-cost, systematic safety countermeasures identified in the Roadway Departure Safety Implementation Plan (RDIP) and the Intersection Safety Implementation Plan (ISIP). The HSIP Set-aside is also used to advance larger safety projects by providing additional funding where necessary. The HSIP Set-aside Reserve line Item is held on the STWD Items TIP, and projects are programmed on regional TIPs with the MPMS fund code sHSIP.

HSIP funding proposals may be submitted by an MPO/RPO and are reviewed for eligibility through an approval workflow involving District and Central Office Safety and Planning staff prior to programming on a TIP. Communication announcing the HSIP Set-aside application period was shared on July 15, 2021. Set-aside funding applications were accepted from August 1 – September 30, 2021. A data-driven safety analysis in the form of Benefit/Cost (B/C) Life-Cycle analysis or Highway Safety Manual (HSM) analysis was required. Evaluation criteria were weighted, and each project was scored and ranked. Evaluation criteria included B/C analysis, HSM analysis, fatal and injury crashes, application of systematic improvements, improvement on local roads, and deliverability.

Recommended projects meeting PennDOT’s eligibility requirements, including a minimum 1:1 B/C ratio, were selected based on evaluation criteria scoring. Selected projects demonstrate a significant potential safety return for the cost, within the current available funding. Carryover projects were approved in prior rounds of funding, or separately by the Program Management Committee (PMC) which is the central decision-making body for transportation improvement projects within PennDOT and was structured to cover impacts of changes to the capital funds program. Projects not recommended for funding will remain as candidate proposals to be considered as HSIP funds become available. FHWA has reviewed and concurs with the proposed program of projects. The HSIP Set-aside is continually monitored by Central Office CPDM and Bureau of Maintenance and Operations staff to maximize funding and project delivery. A list of HSIP Set-aside Program projects is included in Appendix 12.

Transportation Alternatives Set-aside (TASA)

The Transportation Alternatives Set-aside of the Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (TA Set-aside) provides $45 million per year for programs and projects defined as transportation alternatives, including on- and off-road pedestrian and bicycle facilities, infrastructure projects for improving non-driver access to public transportation and enhanced mobility, community improvement activities, environmental mitigation, trails that serve a transportation purpose, and safe routes to school projects.

The IIJA/BIL further sub-allocates TA Set-aside funding based upon population. Funds available for any area of the state, urban areas with populations of 5,001 to 50,000, 50,000 to 200,000 and areas with population of 5,000 or less are centrally managed by PennDOT. PennDOT Central Office, with coordination and input from PennDOT Districts and MPOs/RPOs, selects projects through a statewide competitive application process. Projects are evaluated using PennDOT’s Core Principles, which are found in Design Manual 1. These Principles encourage transportation investments that are tailored to important local factors, including land use, financial concerns, and overall community context. Project deliverability, safety, and the ability to support Environmental Justice principles and enhance local or regional mobility are also considered during project evaluation. The planning and programming responsibilities for these TA Set-aside funds are handled by PennDOT CPDM and funding is fiscally constrained to an annual funding level by Financial Guidance. The statewide TA Set-aside projects are programmed on regional TIPs with the MPMS fund code TAP.

Selected projects are added to regional TIPs utilizing a Statewide Line Item to maintain fiscal constraint. Projects selected under previous application rounds without regular obligation or with AC obligation will be carried over from the current Program. The balance of funds from any carryover projects will remain in a Statewide Line Item on the Statewide Program. Additional information about the TA Set-aside can be found on PennDOT’s TA Set-aside Funding Site.

A separate regional allocation of funding is available for urbanized areas with populations over 200,000. These funds are available for MPOs to administer competitive applications rounds to select eligible projects for inclusion on their regional TIPs. Funding is fiscally constrained based on annual funding amounts provided in Financial Guidance utilizing MPMS fund code TAU. The MPOs/RPOs will coordinate with the PennDOT CPDM TA Set-aside state coordinator prior to initiating a project selection round. A list of TAP projects is included in Appendix 13.

Transportation Infrastructure Investment Fund (TIIF)

$25 million per year in state highway capital funds is made available for improvements to eligible state-owned transportation facilities associated with economic development opportunities (designated as e581 on the TIPs). Project funding is authorized by the Governor of Pennsylvania through the office of the Secretary of the Department of Community and Economic Development (DCED). DCED works closely with PennDOT and the office of the Deputy Secretary for Planning to ensure project eligibility. Approved projects are administered in cooperation with PennDOT Districts and CPDM and programmed on regional TIPs. A list of TIIF Program projects is included in Appendix 14.

Secretary’s Discretionary (Spike)

As mentioned previously, a portion of highway funding is reserved for distribution by the Secretary of Transportation (referred to as Spike funding). The Secretary’s Spike funding is fiscally constrained to an annual funding level provided by Financial Guidance. The Spike funding planning and programming responsibilities are handled by PennDOT CPDM, based on direction provided from the Secretary.

Historically, the Secretary of Transportation has selected projects to receive Spike funding to offset the impact of high-cost projects, implement special initiatives, or advance statewide priority projects. The Spike funding decisions typically continue previous Spike commitments, with any new project selections aligning with the Department’s strategic direction and investment goals. Selected Spike projects are included in regional TIPs or the Interstate Management TIP, utilizing Reserve Line Items from the STWD Items TIP to maintain overall STIP fiscal constraint. Spike projects are indicated with a lower-case “s” before the MPMS fund code (ex. sNHPP).

To ensure Pennsylvania has a high-quality, well-functioning intelligent transportation system, $5 million of Spike funds was set-aside per year for the Transportation Systems Management and Operations (TSMO) initiative. Projects were selected that promote and support the implementation of TSMO strategies to resolve key mobility and safety issues. MPO/RPO candidate projects were submitted for review from August 9, 2021 through September 30, 2021. Selected projects were shared with FHWA on November 15, 2021. Selected TSMO projects and Spike decisions were shared with MPO/RPOs and Districts on December 8, 2021. A list of SPIKE projects is included in Appendix 4.

Independent County

Wayne County is not part of a MPO or RPO and is considered an independent county. As an independent county, PennDOT, through the CPDM and Engineering District 4-0, develops and manages the Wayne County TIP as part of the STIP. Following Pennsylvania’s established transportation planning process, the Department coordinates with Wayne County officials on transportation needs and priorities. PennDOT District 4-0 uses various data sources along with knowledge of assets and project delivery to identify and prioritize needs. To help evaluate and prioritize needs, the Bridge Asset Management System (BAMS) and Pavement Asset Management System (PAMS) were utilized to provide an optimized program based on Lowest Life Cycle Cost (LLCC) principles. This information along with local input is used to identify which transportation projects need to be developed and advanced based on available funding. From a programming standpoint, the Wayne County TIP is fiscally constrained to an annual funding level provided as part of Financial Guidance.

TPM measures and targets are outlined in the TPM section of this document. The TPM section will also outline how the Wayne County program performance will be evaluated.

Supporting Wayne TIP documentation can be found in Appendix 22.

TRANSPORTATION PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The IIJA/BIL continues the requirements established in Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) and the FAST Act for performance management. These requirements aim to promote the most efficient investment of Federal transportation funds. Performance-based planning ensures that PennDOT and the MPOs collectively invest Federal transportation funds efficiently towards achieving national goals. In Pennsylvania, the RPOs follow the same requirements as MPOs.

Transportation Performance Management (TPM) is a strategic approach that uses data to make investment and policy decisions to achieve national performance goals. 23 USC 150(b) outlines the national performance goal areas for the Federal-aid program. This statute requires that FHWA and FTA establish specific performance measures for the system that address these national goal areas. The regulations for the national performance management measures are found in 23 CFR 490.

National Goal Areas

Safety

To achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads.

Infrastructure Condition

To maintain the highway infrastructure asset system in a state of good repair

Congestion Reduction

To achieve a significant reduction in congestion on the National Highway System

System Reliability

To improve the efficiency of the surface transportation system

Freight Movement and Economic Vitality

To improve the national freight network, strengthen the ability of rural communities to access national and international trade markets, and support regional economic development.

Environmental Sustainability

To enhance the performance of the transportation system while protecting and enhancing the natural environment

Reduced Project Delivery Delays

To reduce project costs, promote jobs and the economy, and expedite the movement of people and goods by accelerating project completion through eliminating delays in the project development and delivery process, including reducing regulatory burdens and improving agencies' work practices

Performance Based Planning and Programming

Pennsylvania continues to follow a PBPP process, with a focus on collaboration between PennDOT, FHWA, FTA, MPOs/RPOs, and Transit Agencies at the county and regional levels. These activities are carried out as part of a 3C planning process which guides the development of many PBPP documents, including:

  • Statewide and Regional Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTPs)
  • 12-Year Transportation Program (TYP)
  • State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)
  • Regional Transportation Improvement Programs (TIPs)
  • Transportation Asset Management Plan (TAMP)
  • Transit Asset Management (TAM) Plans
  • Public Transportation Agency Safety Plans (PTASP)
  • Pennsylvania Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP)
  • Comprehensive Freight Movement Plan (CFMP)
  • Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Performance Plan(s)
  • Congestion Management Process (CMP)
  • Regional Operations Plans (ROPs)

The above documents in combination with data resources including but not limited to PennDOT’s bridge and pavement management systems, crash databases, historical travel time archives, and the CMAQ public access system provide the resources to monitor federal performance measures and evaluate needs across the state. Based on these resources, PennDOT and MPOs/RPOs have worked together to (1) create data driven procedures that are based on principles of asset management, safety improvement, congestion reduction, and improved air quality, (2) make investment decisions based on these processes, and (3) work to set targets that are predicted to be achieved from the programmed projects. Aligning goals and performance objectives across national (FHWA and FTA), state (PennDOT) and regions (MPOs/RPOs and Transit Agencies) provide a common framework for decision-making. 

PennDOT, in cooperation with the MPOs/RPOs, has developed written provisions for how they will cooperatively develop and share information related to the key elements of the PBPP process including the selection and reporting of performance targets. These PBPP written provisions are provided in Appendix 15. In addition, PennDOT has updated their Financial Guidance to be consistent with the PBPP provisions. The Financial Guidance provides the near term revenues that support the STIP.

Evaluating 2023-2026 STIP Performance

The 2023 STIP supports the goal areas established in PennDOT’s 2045 long-range transportation plan. These include safety, mobility, equity, resilience, performance, and resources. The goals are aligned with the national goal areas and federal performance measures and guide PennDOT in addressing transportation priorities.

The following sections provide an overview of the federal performance measures. Since asset management, reliability and CMAQ targets have not yet been set for the CY 2022-2025 performance period, the current project selection process for the 2023 STIP is highlighted and related to meeting future targets. Over the 4-year STIP, nearly 85% of the total funding is associated with highway and bridge reconstruction, preservation, and restoration projects. However, these projects are also anticipated to provide significant improvements to highway safety and traffic reliability for both passenger and freight travel. Through these performance measures, PennDOT will continue to track performance outcomes and program impacts on meeting the transportation goals and targets. Decision support tools including transportation data and project-level prioritization methods will be continually developed and enhanced to meet PennDOT and MPO/RPO needs. Dashboards and other reporting tools will be maintained to track and communicate performance to the public and decision-makers.

Safety Performance Measures

Background

The FHWA final rules for the National Performance Management Measures: Highway Safety Improvement Program (Safety PM) and Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) were published in the Federal Register (81 FR 13881 and 81 FR 13722) on March 15, 2016, and became effective on April 14, 2016.

These rules established five safety performance measures (commonly known as PM1). The current regulations are found at 23 CFR 490 Subpart B and 23 CFR 924. Targets for the safety measures are established on an annual basis.

Data Source

Data for the fatality-related measures are taken from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and data for the serious injury-related measures are taken from the State motor vehicle crash database. The Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) are derived from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS).


2022 Safety Measures and Targets (Statewide)

Measure

Baseline
(2016-2020)

Target
(2018-2022)

Number of fatalities

1,140.6

1,113.7

Rate of fatalities per 100 million VMT

1.157

1.205

Number of serious injuries

4,445.6

4,490.8

Rate of Serious injuries per 100 VMT

4.510

4.86

Number of non-motorized fatalities & serious injuries

761.2

730.1

Methods for Developing Targets

An analysis of Pennsylvania’s historic safety trends was utilized as the basis for PennDOT and MPO/RPO coordination on the State’s safety targets. The targets listed above are based on a 2% annual reduction for fatalities and maintaining levels for suspected serious injuries, which was derived from the actions listed in the Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP), crash data analysis and the desire to support the national initiative Toward Zero Deaths.

Progress Towards Target Achievement and Reporting:

PennDOT and the MPOs/RPOs continue efforts to ensure the STIP, regional TIPs, and LRTPs are developed and managed to support progress toward the achievement of the statewide safety targets. At this time, only the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC) has elected to establish their own regional safety targets. All other MPOs/RPOs have adopted the statewide targets.

PennDOT’s SHSP serves as a blueprint to reduce fatalities and serious injuries on Pennsylvania roadways and targets 18 Safety Focus Areas (SFAs) that have the most influence on improving highway safety throughout the state. Within the SHSP, PennDOT identifies 3 key emphasis areas to improve safety – impaired driving, lane departure crashes, and pedestrian safety.

2022 SHSP Safety Focus Areas

Lane Departure Crashes

Speed & Aggressive Driving

Seat Belt Usage

Impaired Driving

Intersection Safety

Mature Driver Safety

Local Road Safety

Motorcycle Safety

Pedestrian Safety

Bicycle Safety

Commercial Vehicle Safety

Young & Inexperienced Drivers

Distracted Driving

Traffic Records Data

Work Zone Safety

Transportation Systems Management & Operations

Emergency Medical Services

Vehicle-Train Crashes

Pursuant to 23 CFR 490.211(c)(2), a State Department of Transportation (DOT) has met or made significant progress toward meeting its safety performance targets when at least 4 of the 5 safety performance targets established under 23 CFR 490.209(a) have been met or the actual outcome is better than the baseline performance for the year prior to the establishment of the target. For Pennsylvania’s 2020 targets, the FHWA determined in March 2022 that Pennsylvania did not meet the statewide targets and is subject to the provisions of 23 U.S.C. § 148 (i). This requires the Department to submit an implementation plan that identifies gaps, develops strategies, action steps and best practices, and includes a financial and performance review of all HSIP funded projects. In addition, the Department is required to obligate in Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2023 an amount equal to the FFY 2019 HSIP apportionment.

As part of the Highway Safety Improvement Program Implementation Plan, the Department identified gaps and best practices to support further reducing serious injuries and fatalities. The following opportunities were identified as ways to assist with meeting future targets: (1) appropriate project selection, (2) expanding local road safety in HSIP, (3) assessing programs that support non-motorized safety, (4) expanding use of systemic safety projects, (5) improved project tracking for evaluation purposes and (6) project prioritization for greater effectiveness.

PennDOT continues to provide feedback on statewide and MPO/RPO-specific progress towards target achievement. The progress helps regional MPOs/RPOs understand the impacts of their past safety investments and can guide future planning goals and strategy assessments.

Evaluation of STIP for Target Achievement:

The following has helped to ensure that planned projects in the STIP will help to achieve a significant reduction of traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads:

  • PennDOT receives federal funding for its Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP). The 2023 STIP includes $520 million of HSIP funding. The Department distributes nearly 70% of this funding to its regions based on fatalities, serious injuries, and reportable crashes. In addition, a portion of the HSIP funding is reserved for various safety initiatives statewide. A complete listing of the HSIP projects is included in Appendix 12.
  • All projects utilizing HSIP funds are evaluated based on a Benefit/Cost (B/C) analysis, Highway Safety Manual (HSM) analysis, fatal and injury crashes, application of systemic improvements, improvements on high-risk rural roads, and deliverability. Specifically, as part of PennDOT’s HSIP application process, a data-driven safety analysis in the form of B/C analysis or HSM analysis is required. Performing this analysis early in the planning process for all projects will help ensure projects selected for inclusion in the TIP will support the fatality and serious injury reductions goals established under PM1.
  • The process for selecting safety projects for inclusion in the TIP begins with the Network Screening Evaluation that the Department has performed on a statewide basis. Selecting locations with an excess crash frequency greater than zero from this network screening is key to identifying locations with a high potential to improve safety. This evaluation has been mapped and is included in PennDOT’s OneMap to ease use by PennDOT’s partners. At the current time, this is not all inclusive for every road in Pennsylvania. Locations not currently evaluated may be considered by performing the same type of excess crash frequency evaluation the Department utilizes. Once this analysis has been performed, the data is used by the Engineering Districts and planning partners to assist MPO/RPOs in evaluating different factors to address the safety concern.
  • PennDOT continues to improve on the methods to perceive, define and analyze safety. This includes integration of Regionalized Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) that have been used to support network screening of over 20,000 locations.
  • PennDOT continues to identify new strategies to improve safety performance. PennDOT is actively participating in EDC 5 to identify opportunities to improve pedestrian safety as well as reduce rural roadway departures. These efforts will lead to new strategies that will be incorporated into the future updates of the SHSP.
  • Safety continues to be a project prioritization criterion used for selecting other STIP highway and bridge restoration or reconstruction projects. Many of these projects also provide important safety benefits.
  • PennDOT continues to evaluate procedures to help in assessing how the STIP supports the achievement of the safety targets. As HSIP projects progress to the engineering and design phases, Highway Safety Manual (HSM) predictive analyses are completed for the project in accordance with PennDOT Publication 638. The HSM methods are the best available state of practice in safety analysis and provides quantitative ways to measure and make safety decisions related to safety performance. Some HSIP projects on the STIP are in an early planning stage and do not have HSM predictive analyses completed. PennDOT will continue to identify ways to expand the application of HSM analyses to support more detailed assessments of how the STIP is supporting achievement of the safety targets.

Pavement/Bridge Performance Measures

Background

The FHWA rule for the National Performance Management Measures; Assessing Pavement and Bridge Condition for the National Highway Performance Program was published in the Federal Register (82 FR 5886) on January 18, 2017 and became effective on February 17, 2017. This rule established six measures related to the condition of the infrastructure on the National Highway System (NHS). The measures are commonly known as PM2. The current regulations are found at 23 CFR 490 Subpart C and Subpart D. Targets are established for these measures as part of a 4-year performance period, the first was CY 2018 to 2021. This TIP includes projects that will impact the second 4-year performance period of CY 2022 to 2025.

Data Source

Data for the pavement and bridge measures are based on information maintained in PennDOT’s Roadway Management System (RMS) and Bridge Management System (BMS). The VMT are derived from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS).

2022-2025 Pavement Performance Measure Targets (Statewide)

Measure

Baseline 2021

2-year Target 2023

4-year Target 2025

% of Interstate pavements in Good condition

TBD

TBD

TBD

% of Interstate pavements in Poor condition

TBD

TBD

TBD

% of non-Interstate NHS pavements in Good condition

TBD

TBD

TBD

% of non-Interstate NHS pavements in Poor condition

TBD

TBD

TBD

Bridge Performance Measure Targets (Statewide)

Measure

Baseline 2021

2-year Target 2023

4-year Target 2025

% of NHS bridges by deck area in Good condition

TBD

TBD

TBD

% of NHS bridges by deck area in Poor condition

TBD

TBD

TBD

Methods for Developing Targets

Pennsylvania’s pavement and bridge targets will be established by October 2022 through extensive coordination with a Transportation Asset Management Plan (TAMP) steering committee and workshops with MPOs/RPOs and FHWA’s Pennsylvania Division. The targets will be consistent with PennDOT’s asset management objectives of maintaining the system at the desired state of good repair, managing to LLCC, and achieving national and state transportation goals. Targets are expected to be calculated based on general system degradation (deterioration curves) offset by improvements expected from delivery of the projects in the TIP along with planned state funded maintenance projects.

Progress Towards Target Achievement and Reporting

PennDOT continues to implement enterprise asset management for programming and decision-making as outlined in the TAMP. PennDOT is transitioning to the new TAMP that was finalized in the summer of 2022. The tools and methodologies are continually evaluated to prioritize state-of-good repair approaches that preserve transportation system assets. Within the TAMP, PennDOT identifies the following key objectives:

TAMP Objectives

•Sustain a desired state of good repair over the life-cycle of assets
•Achieve the lowest practical life-cycle cost for assets
•Achieve national and state goals

PennDOT’s analyses pertaining to life-cycle management, risk management, financial planning, and any performance gaps culminate in an investment strategy to support the objectives and targets established in the TAMP. Appendix 16 includes PennDOT’s annual TAMP Implementation Plan to FHWA and FHWA’s approval.

PennDOT and the MPOs/RPOs continue to ensure the STIP, regional TIPs, and LRTPs are developed and managed to support progress toward the achievement of the statewide pavement/bridge objectives and targets that will be established for the 2022-2025 performance period. Pennsylvania’s pavement and bridge projects provided in the 2023 STIP were selected through extensive coordination with PennDOT’s Asset Management Section in accordance with the TAMP. The projects are consistent with PennDOT’s asset management objectives of maintaining the system at the desired state of good repair, managing to lowest life-cycle costs (LLCC), and achieving national and state transportation goals.

Evaluation of STIP for Target Achievement

The following has helped to ensure that planned projects in the STIP will help to achieve an improvement in bridge and pavement conditions for the state interstate and NHS roads:

  • Nearly 85% of PennDOT’s STIP funding is directed to highway and bridge preservation, restoration, and reconstruction projects. Many of these projects are focused on our state’s interstate and NHS roadways.
  • Pennsylvania’s investment strategy, reflected in the statewide 2023 TYP and 2023 STIP, is the result of numerous strategic decisions on which projects to advance at what time. PennDOT continues to address the challenges of addressing local needs and priorities, while ensuring a decision framework is applied consistently across the state.
  • The TAMP provides a 12-year outlook that includes the financial strategy for various work types and is a driver for the TIP, STIP, TYP and LRTP development. The TAMP projects the levels of future investment necessary to meet the asset condition targets and contrasts them with expected funding levels. This helps PennDOT to make ongoing assessments and to re-evaluate data associated with its future investment decisions.
  • In support of the STIP development, PennDOT and MPOs/RPOs jointly developed and approved General and Procedural Guidance and Transportation Program Financial Guidance documents. The guidance, which is consistent with the TAMP, formalizes the process for Districts, MPOs/RPOs and other interested parties as they identify projects, perform a project technical evaluation, and reach consensus on their portion of the program.
  • The Procedural Guidance also helps standardize the project prioritization process. The guidance is key to resolving issues between programming to lowest life-cycle cost, managing current infrastructure issues and risk mitigation. The resulting methodology allows data-driven, asset management-based decisions to be made with human input and insight based on field evaluations to achieve maximum performance of the available funds. The guidance document is revised for each STIP cycle as PennDOT’s asset management tools and methods evolve and enhance its ability to program to lowest life-cycle cost.
  • In the short term, candidate projects are defined, and the proposed program is compared to Pavement Asset Management System (PAMS) and Bridge Asset Management System (BAMS) outputs to verify that the program is developed to the lowest practical life-cycle cost. The percentages of good and poor can also be projected for evaluation of how the program may impact the national performance measures. When PAMS and BAMS are further implemented and improved, then planners can use the systems to optimize the selection of projects to achieve optimal performance within the funding constraints. Draft programs can then be analyzed in relation to the PM2 measures.

System Performance Measures (PM3)

Background

The FHWA final rule for the National Performance Management Measures; Assessing Performance of the National Highway System, Freight Movement on the Interstate System, and Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program was published in the Federal Register (82 FR 5970) on January 18, 2017 and became effective on May 20, 2017. This rule established six measures related to various aspects of the transportation system (commonly known as PM3). The current regulations are found at 23 CFR 490 Subparts E, F, G & H. Targets are established for these measures as part of a 4-year performance period, the first was 2018 to 2021. The STIP includes projects that will impact future performance periods based on when projects are constructed or completed.

Data Source

The Regional Integrated Transportation Information System (RITIS) software platform is used to generate all the travel time-based measures. Data from the American Community Survey (ACS) and FHWA’s CMAQ annual reporting system are used for the non-SOV travel and mobile source emissions measures, respectively.

Travel Time and Annual Peak Hour Excessive Delay Targets

Measure

Baseline 2021

2-year Target 2023

4-year Target 2025

Interstate Reliability (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

TBD

Non-Interstate Reliability (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

TBD

Truck Reliability Index (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

TBD

Annual Peak Hour Excessive Delay Hours Per Capita (Urbanized Area)

Philadelphia - TBD

TBD

TBD

Pittsburgh - TBD

TBD

TBD

Reading – TBD

TBD

TBD

Allentown – TBD

TBD

TBD

Harrisburg – TBD

TBD

TBD

York – TBD

TBD

TBD

Lancaster - TBD

TBD

TBD

Non-SOV Travel Measure Targets

Measure

Baseline 2021

2-year Target 2023

4-year Target 2025

Percent Non-Single Occupant Vehicle Travel

(Urbanized Area)

Philadelphia – TBD

TBD

TBD

Pittsburgh - TBD

TBD

TBD

CMAQ Emission Targets

Measure

2-year Target 2023

4-year Target 2025

VOC Emissions (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

NOx Emissions (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

PM2.5 Emissions (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

PM10 Emissions (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

CO Emissions (Statewide)

TBD

TBD

Methods for Developing Targets

The System Performance measure targets will be established by October 2022 in coordination with MPOs/RPOs within the state. PennDOT continues to evaluate historic variances in performance measures in relation to project completion to assist with the target setting process.

Progress Towards Target Achievement and Reporting

PennDOT and the MPOs/RPOs continue efforts to ensure the STIP, regional TIPs, and LRTPs are developed and managed to support the improvement of the reliability and CMAQ performance measures. This future progress will be measured against the targets established for the CY 2022-2025 performance period. PennDOT continues to monitor the impacts of completed investments on performance measures to better evaluate investment strategies. These efforts include evaluating the causes of historic reliability and delay issues, identifying freight bottlenecks, and assessing completed projects that provided the most benefits to reliability.

PennDOT remains committed to expand and improve system mobility and integrate modal connections despite the large percentage of funding dedicated to infrastructure repair and maintenance. PennDOT’s LRTP provides objectives to address mobility across the transportation system that will guide investment decisions. The federal systems performance measures will be used to assess future progress in meeting these objectives and the associated targets. 

Mobility

Strengthen transportation mobility to meet the increasingly dynamic needs of Pennsylvania residents, businesses, and visitors. 

  • Continue to improve system efficiency and reliability. 
  • Continue to improve public transportation awareness, access, and services throughout Pennsylvania. 
  • Provide and prioritize multimodal transportation choices to meet user needs, expand mobility options, and increase multimodal system capacity and connectivity. 
  • Implement regional transportation, land use standards, and tools that result in improved multimodal coordination and complementary development. 
  • Adapt to changing travel demands, including those associated with e-commerce and post-COVID-19 pandemic changes. 
  • Work with private sector partners to establish data standards for mobility services and their appliances 9e.g., Uber and Lyft, carsharing services, bikeshares, etc.)
Evaluation of STIP for Target Achievement

The following has helped to ensure that planned projects in the STIP will help to achieve an improvement in the system performance measures for the statewide interstate and NHS road system:

  • PennDOT continues to emphasize their TSMO initiatives to program low-cost technology solutions to optimize infrastructure performance. This has included the development of Regional Operations Plans (ROPs) that integrate with the MPO Congestion Management Process (CMP) to identify STIP projects. A TSMO funding initiative was established in 2018 to further support these efforts. The 2023 STIP includes over $289 million of funding dedicated to congestion relief projects.
  • PennDOT has funded Interstate projects to address regional bottlenecks. Mainline capacity increasing projects are limited to locations where they are needed most. These investments will provide significant improvements to mobility that support meeting the Interstate and freight reliability targets.
  • The statewide CMAQ program provides over $440 million of funding on the STIP for projects that benefit regional air quality. PennDOT has worked with Districts and MPO/RPOs to develop more robust CMAQ project selection procedures to maximize the air quality benefits from these projects.
  • Over $210 million is provided in the STIP for multimodal alternatives. This includes funding for transit operating costs, transit and rail infrastructure, support for regional carpooling, and other bike and pedestrian infrastructure within the state. These projects provide opportunities to reduce VMT and increase the percentage of non-single occupant vehicles.
  • At this time, the potential impact of past and planned STIP investments on PM-3 performance measures is still being evaluated. The timeline for project implementation often prevents an assessment of measurable results until a number of years after project completion. PennDOT continues to monitor the impact of recently completed projects on the reliability and delay measures. As more data is obtained, these insights will help PennDOT in evaluating potential project impacts in relation to other factors including incidents and weather on system reliability and delay.

Transit Performance Measures

Background

In July 2016, FTA issued a final rule (TAM Rule) requiring transit agencies to maintain and document minimum Transit Asset Management (TAM) standards, policies, procedures, and performance targets. The TAM rule applies to all recipients of Chapter 53 funds that either own, operate, or manage federally funded capital assets used in providing public transportation services. The TAM rule divides transit agencies into two categories (tier I and II) based on size and mode. The TAM process requires agencies to annually set performance measure targets and report performance against those targets. For more information see: Transit Asset Management | FTA (dot.gov)

Data Source

The TAM rule requires states to participate and/or lead the development of a group plan for recipients of Section 5311 and Section 5310 funding, and additionally allows other tier II providers to join a group plan at their discretion. All required agencies (Section 5311 and 5310) and remaining tier II systems except for Centre Area Transportation Authority (CATA), have elected to participate in the PennDOT Group Plan. The Group Plan is available on PennDOT’s website at PennDOT Group Plan. The group plan is updated annually with new targets as well as the current performance of the group.

Transit Asset Management Targets (for all agencies in PennDOT Group Plan)

Measure

Asset Class

FY 2020-21 Target

Current Performance

FY 2021-22 Target

Rolling Stock (Revenue Vehicles)

Age

% of revenue vehicles within a particular asset class that have met or exceeded their Estimated Service Life (ESL)

AO-Automobile

16%

18%

18%

BR-Over-the-road Bus

12%

18%

18%

BU-Bus

29%

28%

28%

CU-Cutaway

42%

52%

52%

VN-Van

64%

63%

63%

SV-Sports Utility Vehicle

17%

33%

33%

Equipment (Non-Revenue Vehicles)

Age

% of non-revenue/service vehicles within a particular asset class that have met or exceeded their ESL

Automobiles

46%

57%

57%

Trucks/Rubber Tire Vehicles

50%

27%

27%

Facilities

Condition

% of facilities with a condition rating below 3.0 on the FTA TERM scale

Administrative / Maintenance Facilities

30%

14%

14%

Passenger / Parking Facilities

83%

84%

84%

Methods for Developing Targets

PennDOT annually updates performance targets based on two primary elements: the prior year’s performance and anticipated/obligated funding levels. PennDOT requires rolling stock and non-revenue vehicles (equipment) to meet both age and mileage ESL standards prior to being replaced. While the identified annual targets represent only age and condition in line with FTA guidelines, PennDOT will continue to apply age and mileage when making investment decisions.

Progress Towards Target Achievement and Reporting

The Pennsylvania TAM Group Plan fulfills the PBPP requirement and encourages communication between transit agencies and their respective MPOs and RPOs. In accordance with the plan, the following actions take place that fulfill the PBPP requirement:

  • PennDOT provides asset performance reports to transit agencies by August 31 of each year that measure performance against established targets for the previous fiscal year.
  • Transit agencies review the content for accuracy and confirm with PennDOT that information related to transportation asset performance has been received and is accurate.
  • Transit agencies share performance data with their respective planning partner by the end of each calendar year, or earlier as decided between the partners.
  • New performance goals for the upcoming fiscal year are established no later than September 15 of each year and communicated to transit agencies covered under the group plan.
  • Transit agencies continue regular coordination regarding the local TIP and other planning initiatives of the local planning partner.

All transit agencies are required to utilize Pennsylvania’s transit Capital Planning Tool (CPT) as part of their capital planning process and integrate it into their TAM process. The CPT is an asset management and capital planning application that works as the central repository for all Pennsylvania transit asset and performance management activities.

Consistent with available resources and in coordination with the PennDOT BPT, transit agencies are responsible for submitting projects consistent with the CPT for the development of the transit portion of the Program. This ensures that projects identified on the TIP are consistent with the TAM approach and respective TAM plans. PennDOT CPDM will update this project information in MPMS and share it with the MPOs/RPOs, PennDOT BPT, and the transit agencies.

Evaluation of STIP for Target Achievement

The STIP includes an investment prioritization process using established decision support tools. The investment prioritization process occurs annually as part of the capital budgeting process. To prioritize investments at an agency level and at a statewide level, the following basic actions take place:

  • Update inventory in the CPT to include age, mileage, condition, and operational status
  • Identify assets that are not in a state-of-good-repair, using the following priority process:
    • o Vehicles that surpass age and mileage ESL
    • o Vehicles that surpass age or mileage ESL and are rated in poor condition or represent a safety hazard
    • o Facilities that have a condition rating of less than 3 on the TERM Scale, with priority given to facilities that are the lowest in the scale and represent a critical need to maintain operational capacity

    Throughout the process, PennDOT reviews projects and works with agencies to approve and move projects forward through the grant process.

    • Determine available funding based on federal and state funding sources
    • Develop projects within the CPT Planner based upon funds availability
    • Import CPT Planner into DotGrants for the execution of capital grants

    Public Transit Safety Performance Measures

    In addition to the Transit Asset Management Performance, FTA issued a final rule on Public Transportation Agency Safety Plans (PTASP), effective July 19, 2019. The PTASP final rule (49 C.F.R. Part 673) is meant to enhance safety by creating a framework for transit agencies to manage safety risks in their organization. It requires recipients of FTA funding to develop and implement safety plans that support the implementation of Safety Management Systems (SMS). At this time, recipients of only Section 5311 (Formula Grants for Rural Areas) or Section 5310 (Enhanced Mobility of Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities Program) are exempt from the PTASP requirement.

    As part of the plan development process, performance targets must be established for the following areas:

    1. Fatalities,
    2. Injuries,
    3. Safety Events, and System Reliability

    All public transit agencies in the Commonwealth have written safety plans compliant with Part 673 as of July 20, 2021. These safety plans must be updated annually based on agency specific execution dates and shared with PennDOT BPT. It is also the transit agency’s responsibility to share the updated plan with their respective MPO/RPO, so the new targets and measures can be incorporated into regional planning practices.


    MANAGING STIP FUNDING

    Funding included in the 2023 STIP and summarized in the earlier tables includes resources that can reasonably be assumed to be available over the 4-year period. Actual obligation of federal funds will be controlled by annual obligation limitations as determined through annual Federal Transportation Appropriation Acts.

    Funding categories for specific highway and bridge categories does not precisely match funding anticipated over the four-year period. As has been past practice, PennDOT will manage the STIP within the core fund categories. This includes managing between federal and state dollars. PennDOT, if necessary, will utilize transfer provisions to provide necessary funding for the STIP priorities.

    Due to annual obligation limitations, Pennsylvania’s balance of federal funds continues to increase. Therefore, balances of a specific category may be available and can be directed to projects in accordance with MPO/RPO and PennDOT priorities. A summary of the Highway Federal funds balances is included in Appendix 8.

    PennDOT, FHWA and the FTA have a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) establishing the procedures for STIP modifications. This agreement is included in Appendix 17. The STIP will be managed in each planning region based on agreed upon TIP modification procedures. Each MPO/RPO has adopted specific procedures for their area. These TIP modification procedures define an amendment and an administrative modification. They define how the MPO or RPO will act upon these items and set thresholds for approval authority.

    As part of a MOU with FHWA and FTA, PennDOT has agreed to provide each MPO/RPO and FHWA with quarterly and year-end status reports that indicate federal funds obligated and state funds encumbered/spent for projects listed on each region’s TIP.

    Line Items

    Reserve line-item funding has been used in several ways throughout the development of the TIPs and STIP:

    • Within specific TIPs, line items are used for certain types of projects such as, but not limited to, Betterments, Bridge Preservation, and Low-Cost Safety Initiatives. Individual projects will be identified at a future date and will be drawn down from the line item.
    • At the Statewide level, line items are used to reserve funding for specific purposes. Some examples include the Statewide Highway-Rail Grade Crossing (RRX) program, Statewide HSIP set-aside, Statewide Rapid Bridge Replacement (RBR) program, Transportation Infrastructure Investment Fund (TIIF) reserve, Statewide Transit Flex reserve, contracts with Environmental Review Agencies, and State and Local bridge inspection. This also applies to Surface Transportation Block Grant Program Set-aside (TAP) funds, which involves a statewide application, review and selection process.
    • Transit statewide line items are used for unallocated and reserved transit funding.

    Cash Flow Programming

    Cash flow programming continues to be employed as part of the programming process. The 2023 STIP lists funds required to complete a project or phases of a project. If federal funds were obligated or state funds previously encumbered, they do not appear in the Program. PennDOT will continue to use tools such as AC and partial conversions to manage federal funds required for each project/phase.

    Project Cost Estimating and Scheduling

    The Bureau of Design and Delivery developed cost estimating guidance to update the processes and procedures found in the Estimating Manual, Publication 352. The cost estimating guidance covers planning through the Final Design Office Meeting.

    The guidance emphasizes updates of construction cost estimates at the project milestones of Program development, Engineering and Environmental Scoping, NEPA Approval, Design Field View, Final Design Office Meeting, and Final Estimate. The document highlights the need to carefully consider the cost estimate at the planning and programming phase.

    This guidance also emphasizes the importance of documentation and review of estimates. Tools were developed to facilitate documentation with respect to analyzing the cost drivers that affect the project estimate and the Estimate Review Report. Training has been offered to all Engineering Districts.


    AIR QUALITY

    In order to receive transportation funding and approvals from FHWA and/or FTA, state and local transportation agencies must demonstrate that their plans, programs, and projects meet the transportation conformity requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as set forth in the transportation conformity rule. Under the transportation conformity rule, transportation plans are expected to conform to the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) in nonattainment or maintenance areas, as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The integration of transportation and air quality planning is intended to ensure that transportation plans, programs, and projects will not:

    • Cause or contribute to any new violation of any applicable National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS).
    • Increase the frequency or severity of any existing violation of any applicable NAAQS.
    • Delay timely attainment of any applicable NAAQS, any required interim emissions reductions, or other NAAQS milestones.

    PennDOT has worked with its MPOs/RPOs to complete and document conformity determinations for the 2023 STIP. The conformity determinations address the current NAAQS that are applicable to each region. These include the 1997 8-hour ozone, 2006 24-hour fine particulate (PM2.5), 2008 8-hour ozone, 2012 annual PM2.5, and 2015 8-hour ozone NAAQS. A table and map documenting the areas that require Transportation Conformity can be found in Appendix 18.

    The transportation conformity determination typically includes an assessment of future highway emissions for defined analysis years. Emissions are estimated using the latest available planning assumptions and available analytical tools, including the EPA’s latest approved on-highway mobile sources emissions model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). The conformity determination provides a tabulation of the analysis results for applicable precursor pollutants, showing that the required conformity test was met for each analysis year. In 2018, the EPA issued guidance that addresses how transportation conformity determinations can be made in areas subject to the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS standard. The guidance is based on a February 16, 2018 District of Columbia Circuit court decision for South Coast Air Quality Mgmt. District v. EPA (“South Coast II,” 882 F.3d1138). Conformity determinations for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS do not require an emissions analysis.

    As required by the federal transportation conformity rule, the conformity process includes a significant level of cooperative interaction among federal, state, and local agencies. To meet this requirement, PennDOT and the MPOs/RPOs have a formalized Interagency Consultation Process. The process was developed and documented in collaboration with the Statewide Interagency Consultation Group (ICG). The consultation process included conference calls and meetings of the Pennsylvania Transportation and Air Quality Work Group. Participants of this work group include PennDOT, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), EPA, FHWA, FTA and representatives from larger MPOs within the state. Meetings and conference calls were conducted to review all input planning assumptions, methodologies, and analysis years. PennDOT used a SharePoint website to share project narrative lists and air quality reports with consultation partners and to obtain and manage comments. In addition, weekly email updates were sent to consultation partners identifying the critical reviews based on the start date of the MPO’s/RPO’s public comment period. This process provided for collaboration and efficient reviews of draft materials. In addition to coordination with the ICG, PennDOT hosted a training session with FHWA, EPA, and MPOs/RPOs to educate stakeholders on Air Quality requirements and discuss the transportation conformity process and procedures for the 2023 STIP update.


    PUBLIC PARTICIPATION SUMMARY INFORMATION

    PennDOT and all MPO and RPOs, along with the STC, jointly conducted public involvement for the development of Pennsylvania’s 2023 Transportation Program.

    In preparation for the 2023 program update, the STC evaluated the performance of Pennsylvania’s transportation system and released its findings in the 2021 Transportation Performance Report. The report assesses the condition of the PA transportation system with available resources in the areas of safety, mobility, preservation, accountability, and funding. The public was asked to consider the report findings and offer feedback for consideration in the 2023 Program update.

    The STC accepted public comments for six weeks from March 1, 2021 through April 14, 2021. The STC uses many outreach tools to provide the public with accessible opportunities to provide feedback, among them:

    • A statewide online public forum hosted by PennDOT Secretary Yassmin Gramian was held on March 23, 2021. State Transportation Commissioner Ronald Drnevich and Deputy Secretary of Planning Larry Shifflet were presenters and keynote speakers at the forum.
    • A customized, interactive online survey (also available via paper upon request) invited participants to rank their transportation system priorities, develop their version of a transportation budget and map their transportation concerns.

    These public feedback tools were promoted and made available on the STC’s website, www.talkpatransportation.com. The STC, along with PennDOT and MPOs/RPOs across the Commonwealth promoted the 2023 TYP Open Comment Period through a series of email blasts, social media posts (Facebook and Twitter), and traditional press releases. Through this cooperative effort, over 7,400 customers visited the online survey and identified nearly 2,500 transportation issues.

    The STC posted the results of the Open Comment Period on the website so the MPOs/RPOs could utilize the data for their regional TIPs and, in some regions, LRTPs.

    The 2023 TYP is available on www.talkpatransportation.com.

    After TIPs were developed and air quality conformity determinations were completed, a minimum 30-day public comment period was conducted for each region per their regional public participation plans. Public comment period dates are included in Appendix 19. Block advertisements were placed in area newspapers, and in some cases, public service announcements were aired on local radio or TV stations. The publicly shared documents (including the TIP, air quality conformity determination, if appropriate, and the TIP Modification Procedures) were available electronically, and in some cases, were placed in public buildings and other locations accessible to the public via appointment. MPOs/RPOs placed documents on their websites, and PennDOT provided links to each MPO/RPO website through the STC website. In addition, all MPOs/RPOs held public meetings during the public comment period.

    Before the 30-day comment periods were opened, each MPO/RPO and PennDOT began the Environmental Justice (EJ) outreach efforts using Census Track information and other data to determine the locations and concentrations of traditionally underserved populations within the study area. Outreach efforts were then initiated through local elected officials, community/civic leaders, religious organizations, housing projects, and others to obtain comments on the documents. MPOs/RPOs led efforts to consider the potential impacts of the TIP to low-income and minority populations and the Environmental Justice analysis can be found in each regional TIP. Efforts will continue to refine and improve public outreach efforts to traditionally underserved populations to gather more input early and often on long-range and short-range programs.

    Additionally, each MPO/RPO provided copies of their respective TIP documents to representatives of Federally Recognized Native American Tribes and Nations with interests within their geographic areas of responsibility so that the tribal leaders could provide comments and feedback. The list of tribal contacts included the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, the Cayuga Nation, the Delaware Nation, the Delaware Tribe of Indians, the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, the Oneida Indian Nation, the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin, the Onondaga Nation, the Seneca Nation of Indians, the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma, the Shawnee Tribe, the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe, the Stockbridge-Munsee Band of Mohican Nation of Wisconsin, the Tonawanda Seneca Nation, and the Tuscarora Nation.

    To address “Visualization in Planning” requirements, PennDOT provided the TIPs on a Commonwealth website with links between projects, location maps, video logs, and the MPOs’/RPOs’ websites. Upon approval of the 2023 STIP, PennDOT will utilize mapping tools to provide more detailed information for those projects that can be mapped.

    In accordance with the Statewide Public Participation Plan (PPP), a STIP 15-day public comment period was held from June 15 through June 30, 2022. The statewide Interstate, Statewide Items, and Independent County TIPs were included for review during this period. PennDOT provided copies of STIP documents to representatives of the above referenced Federally Recognized Native American Tribes and Nations to provide comments and feedback.

    All comments, concerns and questions were summarized after the 15-day and 30-day comment periods. The MPO/RPO, transit authority/authorities and PennDOT coordinated/collaborated and then met to consider the comments and prepare appropriate responses for consideration.

    In each metropolitan and rural area, these summaries are attached to the TIPs and are included as part of the 2023 STIP submission.

    The current PennDOT Statewide PPP was updated and posted on PennDOT’s website.

    PennDOT will make all reasonable modifications to policies, programs, and documents to ensure that people with disabilities and those with limited English proficiency have an equal opportunity to enjoy all its programs, services, and activities. To request a copy of the STIP in alternative formats, contact the Bureau of Equal Opportunity at (800) 468-4201.


    CONSULTATION WITH RURAL LOCAL OFFICIALS

    Pennsylvania’s planning and programming process has led PennDOT and its rural Planning Organizations into many joint planning and programming ventures. As with the development of previous STIPs, the 2023 STIP was guided by a schedule and procedures developed by PennDOT, FHWA, FTA and Planning Partners.

    Each RPO that is under contract to PennDOT, functions much like their MPO counterparts across the state. PennDOT and each RPO, work together cooperatively to develop the TIP for that region. PennDOT continues to work with each RPO to maintain and update LRTPs.

    PennDOT, in accordance with 23 CFR 450.210 (b) requested feedback from the Non-Metropolitan Local Officials on the effectiveness of PennDOT’s consultation process in the development of statewide LRTP and STIP. Feedback indicated an appreciation of the collaboration, communication and openness in the planning and programming process.


    STATE CERTIFICATION OF THE PLANNING PROCESS

    As with the MPO self-certifications, the state certification has been updated and expanded to reflect any new requirements. Deputy Secretary of Planning, Larry S. Shifflet, has signed this certification, and it is included as Appendix 20 to this document.


    FFY 2021-2024 STIP PLANNING FINDINGS

    FTA Region III and FHWA Pennsylvania Division documented Planning Findings for the Pennsylvania 2021 STIP and all incorporated TIPs as part of its approval.

    The Planning Findings identified areas of the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning processes that work well, as well as other areas that need improvements or enhancements by the 2023 STIP update. A complete copy of the Pennsylvania 2021 STIP Planning Finding can be found in Appendix 21. Also included in Appendix 21 is a matrix used to track progress of the findings for the 2023 STIP.


    LONG-RANGE PLANNING

    In December 2021, PennDOT completed the most recent update to its statewide Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP). The 2045 LRTP, as it is titled, is a multimodal long-range policy plan completed through extensive collaboration with the public, MPO/RPO partners, and other multimodal transportation agencies and stakeholders in Pennsylvania. In addition to 2045 LRTP, an updated functional Freight Movement Plan (FMP) planning process was simultaneously conducted in accordance with the FAST Act. The 2045 FMP, updates Pennsylvania’s PAOnTrack Comprehensive Freight Movement Plan from 2016 in accordance with the FAST Act update requirements for state freight plans. At the time of this writing, the FMP is pending federal guidance associated with the historic passing of the IIJA/BIL. While federal guidance is pending, PAOnTrack remains the current Pennsylvania Freight Movement Plan of record.

    The 2045 LRTP and the 2045 FMP both include interrelated sets of common long-range goals for continuity in long-range transportation planning in Pennsylvania and within the unique planning regions of its planning partners. This is especially valuable because of rapid near-term change occurring in our world. Instead of merely reacting and constantly changing course, adhering to a consistent long-term vision enables systematic progress forward. This is especially true given the variety of needs and the multi-year nature of transportation project development, from planning through design and construction to ongoing maintenance. The recommended goals associated with the 2045 LRTP and the 2045 FMP articulate what aspects of the transportation systems are important to Pennsylvanians, and what broad types of outcomes are desired over the 20-year planning horizon. For example, safety will always be a priority, even though advances in automated vehicles may change PennDOT’s activities toward enhancing transportation safety.

    Similar to the policy framework outlined in the plans, near-term actions for adaptation in 2045 LRTP are also presented and based on rigorous analysis of trends and likely future conditions. For certain, new issues and influences will arise over the coming years. This reality is accommodated in the implementation approach to the Plans. Objectives and actions identify schedules, and individual tasks that will advance each plan’s goals and objectives over the next five years. These actions will be monitored and modified as appropriate to ensure that activity is strategically adapted to address changing needs and opportunities. The 2045 LRTP is considered a “living document” to be adjusted as conditions warrant, with the aim of ensuring that Pennsylvania mobility is poised to meet dynamic needs for decades to come.

    The 2023 STIP supports the 2045 Statewide LRTP as well as the regional LRTPs.

    The table included in Appendix 19 highlights the status of long-range planning in the Commonwealth for the MPOs and RPOs. While long-range plans are not required by federal regulations for RPOs, PennDOT continues to encourage each RPO to maintain and update a long-range plan.